The Paradise of Hadrat Ādam

The Paradise of Hadrat Ādam
Questions & Answers

The Paradise of Hadrat Ādam

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  • masjidmuhammad
  • Mar 05, 2021

QUESTION:

Which Paradise was Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām in before his descent to earth? Was it an earthly Paradise or was it the Paradise in the heavens? Which is the correct view in this regard and what is Hāfiz Ibn Qayyim’s opinion?

ANSWER:

Hadrat Maulānā Idrīs Sāhib Kāndhlawī rahimahullāh writes in Ma‛ārif al-Qur’ān:

The Paradise in which Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām and Hawwā’ were instructed to live is the same Paradise known as the Paradise of eternity which is promised to the righteous after the Resurrection. This is gauged from the context of the Qur’ānic verses in this regard. Several verses before the story of Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām, the Qur’ān makes mention of the same Paradise of eternity:

.وبشر الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات أن لهم جنات تجري من تحتها الأنهار

Give glad tidings to those who believe and do good deeds that for them are gardens beneath which rivers flow.

This is followed by the order to Hadrat‛alayhis salām and Hawwā’ to live in Paradise:

.يا آدم اسكن أنت وزوجك الجنة

O Ādam! You and your wife inhabit Paradise.

The word “al-Jannah” is mentioned with the definitive “al” which clearly means that al-Jannah refers to the one which is well-known and which was mentioned previously. This is followed by the incident of Hadrat Ādam’s descent to earth. The word hubūt (descent) refers to descending from an elevated place. Allāh ta‛ālā then says:

.ولكم في الأرض مستفر ومتاع إلَ حين

For you, on earth, is an abode and a means of livelihood for a certain time.1

It is learnt from this that the place where Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām was ordered to inhabit was different from earth. If he was on earth from the beginning, there would be no meaning to the order: Go to earth and live there.
Sahīh Muslim contains a narration from Hadrat Hudhayfah ibn Yamān radiyallāhu ‛anhu that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam said: On the day of Resurrection people will first go to Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām and say:

يا أبانا استفتح لنا الجنة فيقول: وهل أخرجكم من الجنة إلا خطيئة أبيكم. 2

“O our father! Try and open Paradise for us.” He will reply: “Was it not the mistake of your father which expelled you from Paradise in the first place?”

We learn from this that Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām was expelled from the same Paradise which the believers are requesting him to open. Hadrat Abū Hurayrah radiyallāhu ‛anhu narrates that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam said:

احتج آدم وموسی عند ربهما فحج آدم موسی، قال موسی: أنت آدم الذي خلقك الله بيده

ونفخ فيك من روحه وأسجد لك ملائكته وأسكنك في جنته ثم أهبطت الناس بخطيئتك
إلَ الأرض…الخ. 3

Ādam and Mūsā disputed before Allāh ta‛ālā and Ādam defeated Mūsā in the argument. Mūsā said: You are Ādam whom Allāh ta‛ālā created with His hand, blew his spirit into you, instructed the angels to prostrate before you, and inhabited you in His Paradise. You then caused people to go down to earth on account of your error…

This Hadīth also supports the view that the Paradise mentioned in the verse: “O Ādam! You and your wife inhabit Paradise” refers to the same Paradise which is in the heavens. It is most certainly not a garden on earth as incorrectly assumed by some people. It is absolutely wrong to hold the view that the Paradise mentioned in the verse refers to an earthly garden where Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām and Hawwā’ lived in comfort, and where Shaytān went and deceived the two. This view is not worthy of any consideration.4

قال الله تعالَ: فلا يخرجنكما من الجنة فتشقى، إن لك أن لا تجوع فيها ولا تعرى، وأنك لا
تظمأ فيها ولا تضحى.

So do not let him [Shaytān] drive you out of Paradise or else you shall fall into misery. It is provided for you that you shall neither be hungry therein nor naked. You shall neither suffer from thirst therein nor from the sun’s heat.5

The attributes of Paradise which are listed in these verses can only be the heavenly Paradise and not of an earthly Paradise. These verses are describing the Paradise of Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām.

Hāfiz Ibn Qayyim quotes the proofs of those who say that the Paradise of Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām refers to the heavenly Paradise and comments on them as follows:

قالوا مما يدل على أن جنة آدم هي جنة المآوى ما روى هوذة بن خليفة عن عوف عن قسامة
بن زهير عن أبي موسی الأشعري قال إن الله تعالَ لما أخرج آدم من الجنة زوده من ثمار
الجنة وعلمه صنعة كُ شيء فثمارکم هذه من ثمار الجنة غير إن هذه تتغير وتلك لا تتغير.
قالوا وقد ضمن الله سبحانه وتعالَ له إن تاب إليه وأناب أن يعيده إليها كما روى المنهال
عن سعيد أبن جبير عن ابن عباس في قوله تعالَ فتلقى آدم من ربه كلمات فتاب عليه قال
يا رب ألم تخلقني بيدك قال بلى قال أي رب ألم تنفخ في من روحك قال بلى قال أي رب ألم
تسكني جنتك قال بلى قال أي رب ألم تسبق رحمتك غضبك قال بلى قال أرأيت أن تبت
وأصلحت أراجعي أنت إلَ الجنة قال بلى قال فهو قوله تعالَ فتلقى آدم من ربه كلمات فتاب
عليه وله طرق عن ابن عباس وفي بعضها كان آدم قال لربه إذا عصاه رب أن أنا تبت
6.وأصلحت فقال له ربه إني راجعك إلَ الجنة

It is gauged from the above texts that before descending to earth, Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām was in the heavenly Paradise and not in an earthly one. This is the view of the majority of scholars. However, Hāfiz Ibn Qayyim is inclined to the view that it is an earthly Paradise. He writes:

وقال آخرون: هي جنة غيرها جعلها الله له وأسكنه إياها ليست جنة الخلد، وهذا قول
7.تكثر الدلائل الشاهدة له والموجبة للقول به…الخ

Other scholars say: It is a different Paradise which Allāh ta‛ālā created for him [Hadrat Ādam ‛alayhis salām] and inhabited him in it. It is not the Paradise of eternity. There are many proofs in favour of this view and impose on us to hold the same view…

Allāh ta‛ālā knows best.

REFERENCE:

1. Sūrah al-Baqarah, 2: 36.

2. رواه مسلم: 1 \ 112 ، باب إثبات الشفاعة، فيصل
رواه مسلم: 2 \ 335 ، باب حجاج آدم وموسی عليهما السلام، ط: فيصل، والبخاري: 1 \ 484 ، باب وفاة
3.موسی عليه السلام، ط: فيصل

4. Ma‛ārif al-Qur’ān, vol. 1, p. 128, 289, Maktabah al-Ma‛ārif.
5. Sūrah Tā Hā, 20: 118-119.

6. حادي الأرواح إلَ بلاد الأفراح، ص 64 – 65 ، دار الفكر

7. حادي الأرواح إلَ بلاد الأفراح، ص 57

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